Folks interested in "open knowledge" should check out CKAN (Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network) CKAN is the Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network, a registry of open knowledge packages and projects (and a few closed ones).
Scientific journals are providing greater access to published research by releasing new APIs. Cambridge Journals Online API and Public Library of Science Article Level Metrics API have both been released in the past several weeks. Meanwhile, the European Commission has just completed a public consultation on open access to research data ahead of a new wave of policy reform and their next big research funding round.
The EBSCOhost API for DynaMed provides access through the two protocols of SOAP and REST, both of which return data in XML. An EBSCOhost Integration Toolkit (EIT) profile is required for access.