The Helioviewer Python SDK by Helioviewer allows API interaction to access solar data. It provides installation, requests, and responses. Advanced configuration implements custom timeout values in seconds.
When I'm deciding which intergalactic data set to work with, I don't want to take any half measures. That's why I'm drawn to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In their own words, "The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy." Sounds like their putting the project right up there with the greats like Galileo. You can bring this level of astronomical greatness into your app via the SDSS APIs: SDSS cone search & SDSS image cut-out.
Can we exploit the extraordinary ability that humans have to read faces to make sense of abstract data -- by rendering data as concrete facial features? That's a question raised by a recent ProgrammableWeb Mashup of the Day Pubmed Faceoff.
If math is about measurement, then Mathletics may have your child's number. Much like games that post the best scores of players, the Mathletics SOAP API makes student scores accessible to programs as well as its website.